AGRICULTURE EMERGENCY ANNEX
Table of Contents
The purpose of this Annex is to provide guidance for an agriculture emergency in Saline County, Missouri, that addresses rapid local response to agricultural incidents and other events affecting the health, safety and welfare of livestock and poultry in disaster situations. A coordinated local response is necessary to effectively deal with the crisis and minimize the consequences in order to return the jurisdiction to normal as quickly as possible following a disaster or incident. Due to their complexity, infectious animal diseases add new dimensions to disaster management. Response functions will vary greatly according to the disease in question. There are many disease characteristics to consider such as stability of the agent, route of transmission, incubation time, potential species affected, and the transfer to humans (zoonotic) potential.
SITUATION AND ASSUMPTIONS
• There are approximately 995 farms, 41,000 head of cattle, 98,000 head of swine, 800 head of sheep and goats, 600 horses, an elk farm, several exotic farms, three livestock markets, a holding area for animals in transit, a livestock truck clean-out facility, a case-ready packing plant, poultry and goat swap meet, a jackpot livestock show, college teaching farm, rodeo, circus, and a crop research facility in Saline County. The county has several large fertilizer dealers, grain elevators and large crop producers. There are several commercial pork operations and several commercial poultry operations in the county. Also, several seed-stock cattle, pig and sheep operations that sell genetics to other producers. Missouri Valley College has a rodeo team that travels around the country to compete in various rodeos. The City of Marshall is home to the Saline County Fair and several other town festivals which draw in hundreds of livestock for shows and thousands of people. The county has seven major highways that run through the county, U.S. Interstate 70/U.S. Highway 40 and U.S. Highway 65, and Missouri Highways 20, 41, 127, and 240. The city of Marshall has four major highways that run through the city, U.S. Highway 65 and Missouri Highways 20, 41, and 240.
• In recent years, several serious FAD outbreaks have occurred outside of the United States. The importation of animals and animal products from foreign countries, the ease of travel throughout the world, and the ongoing threat of agri-terrorism, all indicate our vulnerability to a FAD. The introduction of a FAD would present the county, state and nation with a time-sensitive, critical situation that would not only affect animal health but also create a potentially debilitating economic situation. Protecting the agriculture and food distribution industry in Saline County requires cooperation, participation and partnership.
• Any large disaster or emergency may cause substantial suffering to human and animal populations. With the advent of larger animal production facilities, an ever-increasing pet population and the increased vulnerability to intentional introduction of animal diseases, a coordinated local animal response plan is necessary.
• The Missouri Department of Agriculture (MDA) is tasked with handling agriculture emergencies, including infectious animal and plant disease. MDA has the authority to work with local officials and responders to make all necessary rules for suppression and prevention of infectious and contagious diseases among animals and mitigating the spread of plant pests and diseases in the state, per Missouri Revised Statute (RSMO) 267. Depending on the size and nature of the event, the State Emergency Operations Center (SEOC) may be activated to coordinate other state agency and county resources needed to respond, contain and eradicate the disease. Annex W, Animal Emergencies, of the State Emergency Operations Plan (SEOP) addresses interagency cooperation and responsibilities at the state level in the event local resources are overwhelmed. This guidance is intended to aid in the structure of county-level involvement in infectious animal disease response.
• Not all animal disease introductions require emergency response measures. Many disease introductions are routinely handled by private practice veterinarians and/or veterinarians employed by MDA. Response measures are greatly influenced by the infectious nature of the disease, its characteristics of transmission and the actions necessary to contain it. Response measures may be initiated in the event of an introduction of a highly infectious or economically significant animal disease, emerging animal disease, or any other animal disease that meets one or more of the following criteria:
It is one of the International Animal Health Code list of notifiable diseases, as designated by the Office International des Epizooties (OIE)which includes the following diseases:
It falls outside of the domain of the state's routine prevention and response activities and capabilities.
It creates the potential to cause widespread personal hardship within the agricultural community and/or is detrimental to the state or national economy.
It is a poultry-related disease and therefore is addressed at the state level by a separate tri-stateplan, with Missouri, Oklahoma and Arkansas participating. The plan is titled "Emergency Poultry Disease (EPD) Management Plan, September 19, 2005" and addresses diseases that affect poultry.
• The identification of a FAD outbreak or agriculture emergency anywhere in Missouri would affect Saline County. This could result in the creation and enforcement of movement controls of people, livestock, agricultural products and other property.
• It is likely that agriculture producers will be the first to notice disease symptoms in their animals.
• Private veterinary practitioners will likely be the first responders to any FAD outbreak or agriculture emergency. A local veterinarian is required to immediately notify the State Veterinarian or Area Veterinarian in Charge (AVIC) of a suspected FAD.
• The potential exists in Missouri for FAD outbreaks due to agri-terrorism.
• Suspected or positive detection of a FAD in Saline County and will prompt state and/or federal officials to employ additional precautions to prevent or mitigate the possibility of spreading the disease. These precautions may include issuing an Agriculture Movement Control Order. The State Veterinarian could issue this order as an immediate action to prevent spreading the disease or allowing it to cross Missouri borders.
• Numerous local, state and federal agencies will play a role in eradicating the disease.
• Large numbers of domestic livestock and wildlife may need to be destroyed or controlled to prevent the spread of a disease after it has been confirmed in Saline County.
• Immediate quarantine areas may be required where suspected or confirmed cases may have originated, inside of which increased bio-security measures can be implemented. The establishment of a quarantine area may require the development of cleaning and disinfecting procedures and additional record keeping by producers and/or veterinarians.
• Facilities and transport vehicles suspected of being contaminated will need to be cleaned and disinfected.
• The Presiding Commissioner of Saline County may issue an emergency proclamation or disaster declaration. The National Incident Management System (NIMS) will be used to establish the organizational structure of any response.
• The Saline County Emergency Operations Center (EOC) may be activated to manage the emergency.
• Any agricultural disaster may potentially have adverse effects on Saline County's animal population or the public health and welfare.
• Animal shelters may need to be established and staffed for extended periods in a disaster. This would be particularly true for transient livestock passing through the area if an agriculture movement control order was issued.
• Depopulation of animals will be conducted in the most humane and expeditious manner to stop the spread of the disease and limit the number of animals infected.
• Carcass disposal sites will need to be rapidly identified by local officials, MDA and the Missouri Department of Natural Resources (MDNR). (Potential disposal methods include: rendering, landfill, burial on site, and incineration).
• State or federal assistance to deal with a FAD may not be available for several hours or days. Local resources must be fully utilized before requesting outside assistance.
• Saline County will maintain contact information for local agriculture businesses.
• The Saline County Emergency Management Director (EMD) will develop and coordinate plans to house and care for animals and poultry in transit through their county for the duration of an agriculture movement control order.
CONCEPT OF OPERATIONS
MITIGATION / PREVENTION
• All agriculture research facilities, animal shelters, livestock markets, large livestock operations, fertilizer storage facilities, grain elevators, fuel production facilities and county and town fairs will be encouraged to develop emergency procedures and evacuation plans for the animals in their care and custody. Any written plans should be provided to the Saline County EMD for comment and review.
• All information disseminated will be from the Public Information Office (PIO) of MDA, Missouri State Emergency Management Agency (SEMA) or the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). No local press releases should be made due to the extreme sensitivity of this information.
• The Saline County EMD should develop a call-down list and other resources to assist the state and a foreign animal disease diagnostician (FADD) working in their county. Such support could include mapping the local distribution of animals by species, assisting with cleaning and disinfection, and establishing and supporting traffic control and quarantines.
• The Saline County EMD should develop and coordinate plans to house and care for animals and poultry in transit through their county for the duration of an agriculture movement control order.
• MDA will establish an organizational structure, chain of command and outline of duties and responsibilities, required for any FAD response.
• Veterinary services and animal/agriculture emergency care considerations are incorporated into the Saline County Emergency Operations Plan (EOP) as related to livestock issues.
• First responders and officials who would likely be involved in the response to a FAD will be trained in the Incident Command System (ICS) and NIMS.
• Local veterinarians, state and federal emergency personnel are identified in this Annex and the contact information is current.
• FAD scenarios will be included in Saline County multi-year exercise cycle.
• Agri-terrorism will be included in the Saline County hazard analysis.
• Saline County will work with MDA and MDNR to pre-identify burial sites.
• Temporary housing locations, in Saline County for animals stopped in transit during an agriculture movement control order have been identified.
• Unique supply and infrastructure suppliers and vendors have been identified to support Saline County FAD response.
• The type and distribution of livestock and poultry throughout the county and city will be identified. If this is not practical, local residents who are knowledgeable in the species and distribution of animals in the county and city will be identified and enlisted to support the EMD during a response.
• Memoranda of Understanding (MOU) should be established where needed.
• Employees should be educated and trained on agriculture issues and animal diseases.
• Producers and consumers should be educated on agriculture issues and animal disease and proper biosecurity measures.
• Saline County collaborate with MDA on resources and other measures.
• Saline County will secure supplies, equipment, personnel and technical assistance from support agencies, organizations and other resources to carry out the response plans associated with animal health emergency management. Saline County may take initial steps to contain the incident and notify SEMA, MDA and/or the AVIC of any suspected FAD or act of agri-terrorism that may pose a substantial threat to the state. Saline County have reportable symptoms cards available that are supplied by MDA.
• Saline County will request state and federal assistance through SEMA if local resources are overwhelmed. This is likely during any kind of FAD incident.
• Saline County will maintain open lines of communication with state agencies.
• A Priority 2 (medium suspicion) diagnosis by a FADD will result in notification of the Saline County EMD by SEMA or MDA. No action by the county or city is anticipated under a Priority 2 diagnosis. A Priority 1 (high suspicion) diagnosis by a FADD will result in the same notification; however, the Saline County Emergency Manager will likely be required to commit local assets and assist the FADD in locating nearby animals, assisting with traffic control and quarantine enforcement, and cleaning and disinfection.
• A Priority 1 diagnosis will likely require Saline County to activate and utilize its temporary animal housing locations.
Priority 1 Diagnosis: The FADD suspects that a foreign animal disease is likely. Samples are collected and sent by the quickest means to either the Foreign Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory (FADDL) on Plum Island or the National Veterinary Services Laboratory (NVSL) in Ames, Iowa. The suspected disease will determine the destination. The FADD will stay on site and coordinate the initial response and information gathering with MDA, the AVIC and the county emergency manager. The FADD will likely issue an animal quarantine for the suspect animals.
Priority 2 Diagnosis: The FADD suspects that a foreign animal disease is possible. The FADD collects samples and arranges for their delivery to FADDL or NVSL. The FADD will leave the site after providing the producer with biosecurity protocols and possibly issuing an animal quarantine.
• The State Veterinarian, AVIC or other federal authority will lift quarantines and agriculture movement control orders issued by their agencies that were put in place during the FAD outbreak when appropriate epidemiologic data is present.
• MDA will augment veterinary medical services to expedite rapid recovery by utilizing the Missouri Veterinary Medical Association's (MVMA) Volunteer Veterinary Corps in response, mitigation and recovery activities.
• Saline County will aid affected agriculture producers with finding financial assistance from both state and federal sources.
ORGANIZATION AND ASSIGNMENT OF RESPONSIBILITIES
• The state of Missouri and Saline County have comprehensive EOPs, which provide the framework for Saline County operational response to natural and man-made disasters. This would include response to a suspected FAD outbreak or other agriculture emergency. MDA and the State Veterinarian, in close coordination with SEMA and the Saline County EMD, will direct the response to a FAD. The EMD will coordinate with support agencies to meet emergency responsibilities. The EMD (with the approval of the Saline County Commissioners) may designate a willing individual to serve as a County Animal Emergency Coordinator (CAEC). This should be a licensed veterinary medicine practitioner or other animal health professional. The CAEC will act as a liaison between the county and/or city and MDA, as well as technical support and guidance for local planning and mitigation efforts.
• The county and city government will utilize its available resources in any emergency response effort. Additional state assistance may be requested through SEMA. Emergency management response strategies will be based on the location(s) of the animal population where the disease or disaster is located.
• When an initial suspected case of a FAD is observed, it shall be immediately reported to MDA and/or the AVIC. This will trigger a FAD investigation by a FADD. The FADD will determine the need for a quarantine order based upon the suspected case. Based on sample analysis, the FADD will notify the State Veterinarian and AVIC of the diagnosis. If necessary, the State Veterinarian will request SEOC activation through proper channels.
The Saline County EMD (in coordination with the CAEC, if appointed) will:
• Review and update this plan periodically.
• Determine which county and local agencies/departments/organizations have responsibilities in an animal/agriculture emergency for support functions of MDA/USDA.
• Maintain current listings of emergency contacts and resources necessary for a FAD response or other agriculture emergencies (see Appendix 3). A complete list of emergency contacts and resources can be found in the Resource Annex of the Saline County EOP.
• Act as advisor to local veterinarians, regulatory veterinarians, humane organizations, farm service agencies, and others on emergency preparedness issues for the county.
• Produce and maintain maps with the locations of livestock and poultry operations or other special animal/agriculture facilities identified to include volume of livestock, contact information and GIS coordinates.
• Oversee the activities of the CAEC. Duties of a CAEC may include assisting veterinarians and agriculture officials in making appropriate and timely reports of possible FAD cases; ensuring that the county's veterinarians and other animal health professionals receive communications from the State Veterinarian in a timely manner; and consulting with emergency response officials on animal issues during a disaster or emergency operation.
• Coordinate with MDA and MDNR to determine the best methods for disposal of dead animals.
• Develop a network of organizations and individuals who would have responsibilities in a FAD or agriculture emergency and maintain their current contact information. Examples would include MDA Animal Disaster Response Teams, local veterinarians, Saline County Health Department, Police/Sheriff's Departments, Fire Departments, University of Missouri Cooperative Extension Service and USDA County Emergency Board.
• Identify appropriate temporary holding areas for livestock and poultry stopped in the county. Arrange appropriate use agreements as necessary, and identify sources of personnel and equipment necessary to setup and operate the temporary housing area.
Missouri Department of Agriculture (MDA) :
• Lead state agency for agricultural emergencies in Missouri. In coordination with USDA, provides guidance and direction regarding resource activities.
• Develop a standard operating guides (SOG) for highly contagious animal diseases.
• Identify resource needs for equipment, personnel, and supplies.
• Request needed equipment, personnel, and supplies in cooperation with USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) and AVIC.
• Distribute delivered resources immediately to needed areas.
• Track locations of all veterinary personnel working on project(s) and direct movement of these personnel from one section to another as needed.
• Provide public information, news releases, and briefings through JIC.
• Record locations of all premises or areas under quarantine using GIS.
• Provide diagnostic and laboratory support.
• Work with the Missouri Department of Public Safety, Missouri State Highway Patrol (MSHP), the Missouri State Water Patrol (MSWP), and the Missouri National Guard (MONG) to maintain restrictive movement and quarantine zones.
• Release all quarantines at the proper time.
• Coordinate MDA functions with other agencies for:
Providing treatment, feeding, housing, and care of lost and abandoned animals (see Annex I - Mass Care).
Issuing quarantines and enforcing restricted movement of livestock, poultry, and wildlife.
Recommending means of preventing the spread of disease in wildlife.
Coordinating the disposal of dead animals, and to clean and disinfect premises as needed in conjunction with other state agencies (DNR, DHSS, etc.).
Coordinating transportation and equipment needs with designated agencies.
Coordinating with the MDNR and the Missouri Department of Conservation (MDC) on environmental assessment for animal disposal and wildlife management.
• Identify potential sources of outside assistance (contractors, equipment sources, and so on).
District Veterinarians and Animal Disaster Response Teams:
MDA, in coordination with the AVIC, has district veterinarians situated throughout the state (See Appendix 3). District veterinarians are responsible for administering state and cooperative state-federal animal health programs, acting as designated officials of the State Veterinarian when conducting investigations, initiating quarantine or providing veterinary resources to the local level and assisting and guiding euthanasia operations. District veterinarians have the following responsibilities:
• Technical assistance resource. Due to the complexity of infectious animal diseases, response functions will vary greatly depending on the disease in question. Veterinary support will be vital in response functions and should be integrated into ICS. The situation will dictate where the district veterinarians will be most valuable. In some instances, it may be on-scene, and in others it may be in the EOC. The State Veterinarian will determine this.
• State Veterinarian liaison and coordination. The state district veterinarians play an important role in an incident; they represent a direct conduit to the State Veterinarian's office and act as designees. They should be seen as a resource to provide information and vital feedback to the EOC.
The MVMA, in coordination with MDA, maintains a volunteer emergency veterinary corps (The Corps). This group of private practice veterinarians has received training in incident management and agricultural emergency response. These veterinarians can be activated by the State Veterinarian to support local jurisdictions or the state during a FAD incident.
Law Enforcement will:
• Provide site security and conflict resolution. In the event of a disaster, livestock producers and local residents may not cooperate with veterinary inspectors and the quarantine restrictions they may initiate. Law enforcement will be called upon to assure the safety of veterinarians and inspection personnel and resolve any conflicts that may arise.
• Enforce movement restrictions and establish perimeters. Movement restrictions will likely be initiated, and law enforcement personnel may be asked to assist with identifying and stopping violators. The State Veterinarian will provide protocols based on the specific event. Specific duties may include the following:
Setting up perimeters according to the State Veterinarian's specifications. A minimum perimeter will be designated.
Expanding perimeters for increased command and control, with consultation between the State Veterinarian and law enforcement.
Mandating the number of entry/exit points on a given perimeter, with consultation between the State Veterinarian and law enforcement.
Stopping and redirecting vehicles identified in an agriculture movement control order.
Assisting with euthanasia operations.
Issuing temporary movement permits.
• Investigation Assistance. Should the incident be ruled a deliberate disease introduction, law enforcement may be asked to aid in the investigation. The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) will be the lead agency since this would be considered an act of terrorism.
Public Works/Municipal and County Engineers will:
• Coordinate perimeter development. They will assist with perimeter establishments through coordination of signage and barricades.
• Assist in animal carcass disposal. They will provide a list of equipment that could be used for carcass disposal.
• Provide technical assistance as needed.
Local Fire Departments will:
• Coordinate and provide decontamination stations. These stations will be designed to decontaminate vehicles, property and personnel. The State Veterinarian's office will, directly or through the SEOC, provide decontamination protocols appropriate for the confirmed or suspected disease.
• Aid in possible rescue situations. In the event of a rescue situation, teams will be expected to fulfill their normal roles with decontamination occurring after their emergency role is completed.
Local Department of Transportation and MDNR Personnel will:
• Coordinate resources and serve as liaisons to the SEOC and coordinate local resources available to respond to an incident.
• Develop perimeter rerouting and logistic support.
• Support disposal site selection and disposal resources.
Local Health Departments:
Depending on the disease characteristics, if the disease causes illness in humans, public health will be involved in impact assessments on local citizens and suggestions of protective actions. The Missouri Department of Health and Senior Services (DHSS) will be the lead agency with regard to the human disease response component of a zoonotic disease outbreak. Local health departments, for a FAD, will:
• Coordinate and provide mental health services for livestock producers, their families, response staff and those affected by the outbreak. Public health officials should have a plan in place to coordinate providing mental health services to producers, families, and others affected by the disease outbreak.
• Assist with community outreach and education. Public health officials should either have a system in place or be incorporated into existing Emergency Public Information plans for dissemination of information to the community regarding the human health risks associated with the particular disease. Only DHSS will release statements regarding human health.
• Act as a liaison to DHSS.
Presiding Commissioner will:
• Declare a state of emergency and activate the county or city EOC, if warranted.
• Appoint or activate the County PIO. The county PIO will refer all inquires to the MDA PIO for response to animal disease issues and to the DHSS PIO for human public health issues.
Animal Control will:
• Provide and coordinate personnel and equipment to collect, rescue and shelter stray or aggressive companion animals.
• Assist in identifying, surveying and maintaining lists of small animal sheltering facilities and transport as part of Animal Response Teams.
• Assist with the decontamination of companion animals leaving the quarantine zone.
ADMINISTRATION AND LOGISTICS
Basic administrative and accountability procedures for any animal/agriculture emergency will be followed as required by county and city government and state regulations. As with any disaster/incident response, ICS/NIMS will be used to organize and coordinate response activities.
• Organizations with responsibilities in this Annex will maintain organizational SOGs and resource listings for Saline County and Marshall that document notification listings, procedures, policies, equipment supplies and services available to them during an animal/agriculture emergency.
• Saline County is responsible for maintaining records of expenditures, overtime costs, and related expenses for assessment, response and recovery.
• Agreements and MOUs with other local jurisdictions, other levels of government and other agencies and local agricultural businesses are maintained by Saline County. Copies of current agreements, MOUs and guidance for activation for Saline County can be found in the county EMD office. The EMD or designee is responsible for initiating and maintaining MOUs and agreements.
If supplies, materials and equipment are required, records will be maintained according to the Saline County Logistics Annex.
The PIO will follow procedures established in Annex C of the Saline County EOP to:
• Ensure prior coordination with representatives of MDA, DHSS and the Presiding Commissioner.
• Ensure the media receives information on how to contact the PIO at MDA, DHSS or the Joint Information Center (JIC), if one is established.
DIRECTION AND CONTROL/CONTINUITY OF GOVERNMENT
• All local agricultural disaster operations will be supported by the county or city EOC and employ the ICS/NIMS. For a FAD, the initial Incident Commander will be the district veterinarian or FADD on site.
• The EOC is responsible for providing support and resources for the Incident Commander.
• The EMD will advise and assist the senior elected official in the EOC and coordinate with the PIO at the state level. The EMD will have at least one assistant appointed by the Presiding Commissioner or Mayor to support 24-hour operations and act in the absence of the EMD.
• In the event an incident is suspected, or determined, to be a terrorist event, the FBI will be the lead agency in all aspects of the incident to include all PIO functions at a JIC.
PLAN DEVELOPMENT, MAINTENANCE AND REVISION
This Annex will be reviewed annually or on an as-needed basis. It is recommended the Annex be reviewed annually to maintain accurate contact information and procedures.
Appendix 1 - Agriculture Emergency Response Checklists
Attachment A - Preparedness
Attachment B - Response
Attachment C - Recovery
Appendix 2 - Missouri FAD Procedures
Appendix 4 - Quarantine Protocols
Appendix 5- References/Statutory Authority
Appendix 6 - Response Equipment List
Attachment A - Agricultural Emergency Response Trailer
Attachment B - Cleansing and Disinfecting Trailer
Attachment C - Dead Animal Trailer
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