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The purpose of this annex is to establish a unified approach for emergency response agencies in Saline County to respond to and recover from a threat or act of terrorism. Also, establish a terrorism response system that prescribes responsibilities and actions required to respond to and recover from a terrorist event.
SITUATION AND ASSUMPTIONS
Saline County has assets that could be targets for terrorist activities. These include, but are not limited to:
• Federal, state, county and municipal government facilities and structures
• Chemical Facilities
• Medical facilities
• Religious facilities
• Businesses and manufacturing centers
• Airports, railroads, highways and navigable rivers
• Pipelines; power plants; public utilities; landmarks; and large public gatherings
Terrorism takes many forms: bombings, arson, infrastructure attacks (on water, electric, gas, or telecommunications systems), mass shootings, cyberspace failure or disruption, transportation attacks (hijacking, bombing, sabotage etc.), and common law torts.
• Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD). Any weapon designed or intended to cause death or serious bodily injury through the release, dissemination, or impact of toxic or poisonous chemicals, or their precursors; any weapon involving a disease organism; or any weapon designed to release radiation or radioactivity at a level dangerous to human life (18 USC 2332a).
• Chemical Agent. A chemical substance intended to kill, seriously injure, or incapacitate people through physiological effects. Hazardous chemicals, including industrial chemicals and agents, can be introduced via aerosol devices (including munitions, sprayers, or aerosol generators), breaking containers, or covert dissemination. A chemical agent attack might release a chemical warfare agent (such as a nerve or blister agent) or an industrial chemical that may have serious consequences. Whether an infectious agent or a hazardous chemical causes an outbreak may not be obvious early in an investigation; however, most chemical attacks are localized, and their effects become evident within a few minutes. Different chemical agents can be persistent or non-persistent. Persistent agents remain in the affected area for hours, days, or weeks. Non-persistent agents may have high evaporation rates, be lighter than air, or disperse rapidly; therefore the ability to cause casualties is significantly reduced over a relatively short period of time (although they may persist longer in small unventilated areas).
• Biological Agents. Living organisms or materials derived from them that cause disease; harm humans, animals, or plants; or deteriorate materials. Recognition of a biological hazard can occur by: identifying it as a credible threat; discovering bio-terrorism evidence (devices, agents, clandestine labs); diagnosing a disease caused by an agent identified as a possible bio-terrorism agent; or gathering and interpreting public health surveillance data. People exposed to a pathogen such as anthrax or smallpox may not know they have been exposed, and those infected or subsequently infected may not feel sick for some time. Infectious diseases typically progress with a delay between exposure and onset of illness - the incubation period. The incubation period may range from several hours to a few weeks, depending on the exposure and pathogen. Unlike acute incidents involving explosives or some hazardous chemicals, direct patient care providers and the public health community are likely to first detect a biological attack on civilians (See annex M and/or the LPHA ERP). Terrorists also could use biological agents to affect agricultural commodities (agri-terrorism). These agents include wheat rust or viruses that could devastate the local or even national economy.
• Radiological/Nuclear. High-energy particles or gamma rays emitted by an atom undergoing radioactive decay. Emitted particles can be charged alpha or beta particles, or neutral neutrons, or gamma rays. The difficulty of responding to a nuclear or radiological incident is compounded by the nature of radiation itself. Also, involvement of radioactive materials in an explosion may or may not be obvious; depending on what explosive device was used. The presence of a radiation hazard is difficult to ascertain unless the responders have the proper detection equipment and the training to use it. Most of the many detection devices available are designed to detect specific types and levels of radiation -they are not appropriate for measuring or ruling out the presence of all possible radiological hazards. Terrorists may use the following delivery methods:
An improvised nuclear device (IED) is any explosive device designed to cause a nuclear yield. Either uranium or plutonium isotopes can fuel these devices, depending on the trigger. While "weapons-grade" material increases the efficiency a device, materials of less than weapons grade can still be used.
A radiological dispersal device (RDD) is any explosive device that spreads radioactive material when detonated. A RDD includes an improvised explosive device that could be used by placing it in close proximity to radioactive material. A RDD also includes devices identified as "dirty bombs".
A simple RDD spreads radiological material non-explosively (for example, medical isotopes or waste).
• Explosives. Conventional explosive devices or improvised bombs used to cause massive local destruction or to disperse chemical, biological, or radiological agents. Improvised explosive devices are categorized as explosive or incendiary -using high or low filler explosive materials to explode and/or cause fires. Bombs and firebombs are inexpensive and easily constructed. They are not technologically sophisticated. Of all weapons, these are the easiest to obtain and use. The components are readily available, as are detailed instructions for constructing these devices. They are the likeliest terrorist weapons.
• Cyber Terrorism. "Malicious conduct in cyberspace to commit or threaten to commit acts dangerous to human life, or against a nation's critical infrastructures и in order to intimidate or coerce a government or civilian population и in furtherance of political or social objectives. "
• There exist resources statewide that are capable of response to incidents resulting from terrorist activity. These resources include, but are not limited to, hazardous materials response teams with enhanced capabilities for response to incidents involving nuclear or radiological materials, and biological and chemical agents. Such resources are mobilized and deployed by the Division of Fire Safety through Statewide Fire Mutual Aid at the request of the affected local jurisdiction in support of response and recovery operations.
• Requests for Fire Mutual Aid assistance should be directed to the Regional or Statewide Mutual Aid Coordinator.
• Saline County recognizes the responsibility for public health and safety, and the need of a plan to set forth guidelines to deal with terrorism, and the need to exercise the procedures, policies, and guidelines set forth in this Annex.
• Proper implementation of this Annex can reduce the effects a Terrorist attack and limit related exposure to the public.
• No single agency at the Local, State, or Federal level possesses the authority and/or the expertise to act unilaterally on the many difficult issues that may arise in response to a threat or act of terrorism, particularly if WMD is involved.
• Should a terrorist incident be identified, Saline County could be acting alone pending mobilization and deployment of other local, State and Federal assets.
• An act of terrorism involving WMD in Saline County could immediately overwhelm the local response capabilities.
• Counter terrorism efforts including intelligence gathering and appropriate response training may reduce some incident potential, but incidents can occur with little or no warning.
• If appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) is not readily available, entry into the contaminated area (hot zone) may be delayed until the arrival of trained and equipped emergency response personnel. Responders must also be aware of secondary devices targeting first responders.
CONCEPT OF OPERATIONS
• Primary Objectives in Response to a Terrorist Act:
• Protect the lives and safety of the citizens and first responders.
• Isolate, contain, and/or limit the spread of any cyber attack, nuclear, biological, chemical, incendiary, or explosive device.
• Identify the type of agent or devices used.
• Identify and establish control zones for suspected agent used.
• Identify appropriate decontamination procedure and/or treatment.
• Ensure that responders have appropriate equipment and personal protective equipment (PPE).
• Notify emergency personnel, including medical facilities of the danger and anticipated casualties.
• Notify appropriate state and Federal agencies.
• Provide accurate and timely public information.
• Preserve as much evidence as possible to aid investigations.
• Protect critical infrastructure.
Operational Time Frames
• Develop a method for processing information.
• Analyze potential threats, targets, and potential hazards for the jurisdiction. Disseminate on a need to know basis when appropriate.
• Identify facilities, agencies, personnel, and resources necessary to support a terrorist incident response.
• Whenever possible, training exercises conducted by local jurisdictions should include terrorism (WMD) and the utilization of mutual aid resources.
• Review and become familiar with the SEOP.
Saline County will take the appropriate security measures. See Appendix 1 of this Annex for the National Terrorism Advisory System threat guidelines.
• Develop and review Plans and SOG's for response to a terrorist incident. Open and prepare the EOC for possible full activation.
• Advise key personnel of the potential risk.
• Make recommendation as to a possible course of action.
• Maintain increased readiness status until the situation escalates or the decision to discontinue operations is given. Train personnel and maintain inventory of equipment and supplies.
• Any individual who receives notification of a terrorist incident or who is responsible for making notifications must assure that every effort is made to contact primary and support personnel as identified in the Basic Plan and to immediately notify SEMA.
• Once a terrorism incident is suspected, local law enforcement will report and request assistance from the state using existing operating guidelines and/or procedures.
• Each Emergency Response agency shall send a representative to the EOC and may be required to provide a representative to the on-scene Unified Command.
• Local government departments will provide assistance to the EOC as dictated by the current situation.
• Designated local jurisdiction Public Information Officer (PIO) will coordinate all public information releases. (See Annex C)
• Determine the extent of damages, prepare a damage assessment report and request assistance.
• Test, check, and exercise equipment to identify its serviceability.
• Restore essential public services to critical facilities.
• Inventory and replace supplies as necessary.
• Restore all public service to the general population.
ORGANIZATION AND ASSIGNMENT OF RESPONSIBILITIES
A response organization for a terrorism incident will be under the Direction and Control of the Presiding Commissioner. The coordinated response will be conducted from the EOC. The primary responders for terrorism are normally local law enforcement, fire, and County Health and Medical personnel. All other departments are considered to be support. Each jurisdiction should prepare an SOG and functional check list for response to a terrorism incident as defined in the Basic Plan (P&S Chart). In addition, an up-to-date list of emergency response personnel will be maintained and available. The following provides a breakdown by functional areas:
Assignment of Responsibilities
EOC Function: (See Basic Plan and appropriate Annex's for additional Information.)
• The Federal Government is responsible to determine the Nations threat level. See Appendix 1 to this Annex for the National Terrorism Advisory System alert levels. However, it is up to the local jurisdiction to determine their appropriate threat level based upon their current situation.
• If notification of a terrorist incident is received, the Emergency Management Director / Coordinator will immediately contact the chief elected official and primary and support agencies as identified in the Primary & Support Responsibility Charts.
• If notification of an incident is received by other than the Emergency Management Office, the individual receiving the notification will contact the Emergency Management Office and / or the chief elected official immediately.
• The Emergency Management Office is responsible to contact the SEMA Duty Officer and inform them of their current situation and threat. Other local departments will follow their respective SOG's for notifications.
• Activate the EOC at either the primary or alternate location. The EOC serves as the clearinghouse for local jurisdictions to collect, discuss, and disseminate information in regard to a particular event occurring within their jurisdiction. The EOC is responsible to maintain contact with appropriate state and federal agencies throughout the incident period.
• Review the EOP and determine if pre-designated staging areas, mobilization and reception centers are far enough away from the actual scene so that safety is guaranteed.
• If necessary, a Joint Operations Center (JOC) will be established by the Lead Federal Agency (LFA) and will be under the operational control of the Federal On Scene Commander (OSC). The JOC is the focal point and is responsible for coordinating requests from the State. The On Scene Commander may request that a representative from the impacted jurisdiction be assigned to the JOC.
• Direction and Control will originate from the EOC.
• Ensure the alternate EOCs are ready in the event that the primary EOC is not available.
• The EOC will be staffed in accordance with the Basic Plan.
• Coordinate with SEMA and other Federal, State or Local Agency's EOCs as necessary
• Prepare and distribute Situations Reports (SITREPS).
• Coordinate response and recovery operations.
• Identify and coordinate resource requirements.
Local Law Enforcement
• Manage the incident scene. Set-up Incident Management System (IMS) to manage/coordinate with other departments and agencies using the Unified Command System.
• Respond to requests for support/assistance from other departments; local, state, and federal.
• Provide security, maintain order, prevent unauthorized entry, control and re-route traffic and maintain open access/egress for authorized vehicles into the terrorist incident scene.
• Assist in evacuation/in place protection notification of the affected area as requested by the EOC or the on scene incident commander.
• Develop and maintain Standard Operating Guides (SOGs) of duties, roles and responsibilities for any terrorism incidents involving Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosives (CBRNE).
• Ensure Scene Security and evidence preservation pending arrival of the FBI, and assist the FBI and other investigative authorities in determining responsibility.
• Establish access control into and out of crime scene.
• Provide security for Command Post and EOC.
• Manage crowd control when necessary.
• Respond to all reports of terrorist incidents to determine the nature and scope of the incident.
• Provide a representative to the EOC and coordinate with county law enforcement and other agencies for support and resource requirements.
• Establish site security areas and hazard exclusion zones in accordance
• Determine the nature of the incident.
• Provide information on hazardous material/evaluation and environmental damage assessment.
• Develop and maintain internal guidelines to identify specific roles and responsibilities of fire service personnel in each of the major terrorism incidents involving CBRNE.
• Keep the EOC informed.
• Provide personnel safety information to the EOC.
• Provide an environmental analysis, with help from the Missouri Department of Health and Senior Services and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Coordinate with the County Health Director on all health issues. The County Health Director is responsible to determine the health risk, and recommend epidemiological and toxicological solutions to deal with public health issues involved in a terrorist incident. (See Annex M)
• Monitor response personnel and general public exposure to chemical, biological, and radiological agents.
• Monitor and track potential victims.
• Provide information regarding exposure and treatment to potential victims and workers.
• The County Health and Medical Director or a designated representative will assist the PIO on Health and Medical issues and in broadcasts concerning public and individual health issues.
• Keep the EOC informed.
• Respond to emergency requests from the EOC by providing resources, i.e. trucks, earth moving equipment and other needed assets/materials along with operators to reduce hazards, minimizing secondary damage.
• Provide barricades to assist in evacuation and/or scene security.
• Assist in providing temporary storage of equipment and materials until appropriate locations can be located.
• Coordinate with the EOC and the on scene commander to insure the area is safe to enter. Do not enter any area if it has not cleared and declared safe for reentry.
Emergency Medical Services
• The Chief of Emergency Medical Service (EMS) is primarily responsible for directing the medical response and on scene operation within the impacted area. The EMS is responsible for identifying and anticipating resource requirements and allocates resources accordingly. EMS coordinates mutual aid in conjunction with the County Health Officer.
Public Information Officer (PIO): For information on this topic, see Annex C of this plan.
All departments, agencies, and individuals support the Direction and Control function as follows:
• Initial response operations are the responsibility of the local jurisdiction. The FBI is the Lead Federal Agency for all terrorist attacks and will establish a JOC for Direction and Control is one if needed. The MSHP has primary responsibility for coordinating the state level response.
• Local public information operations will be coordinated from the EOC. Note: FEMA / FBI may establish a Joint Information Center (JIC).
• Response and Recovery operations are the responsibility of the local jurisdiction. When making a formal request to SEMA for assistance, the local jurisdiction must have exhausted its capabilities and resources.
CONTINUITY OF GOVERNMENT
Line of Succession for Terrorism
• The line of succession for the Presiding Commissioner is through the District Commissioners, in order of their seniority.
• All local departments listed above are required to maintain a line of succession of at least three persons. See Basic Plan or appropriate annex for names and/or positions.
ADMINISTRATION AND LOGISTICS
• To implement this Annex, an incident must be designated a suspected or actual terrorist threat or incident by the Chief elected official.
• Procedure for dealing with expenses incurred and liability for actions and injuries are outlined in local ordinances, mutual aid agreements and this plan.
• A post-incident report and critique shall be the responsibility of the lead agencies with input from all involved agencies. This will be used for plan modifications and training exercises.
• On Hand stockpiles of Critical Essential materials and supplies should be inventoried and updated annually to ensure its operational readiness or serviceability.
• Emergency purchasing authority may be authorized by the chief elected official if a terrorist incident has occurred.
• The cleanup, removal and disposal of contaminated materials will be handled with the same care that was used during the incident. The MO Department of Natural Resources and the US Environmental Protection Agency may provide assistance in removal, disposal oversight, technical considerations and funding.
Appendix 1 - National Terrorism Advisory System
Appendix 2 - Homeland Security Regional Response System Overview
Appendix 3 - Terrorism Resources
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